Gregory Clark suffers from the mistaken impression of many economic historians that the industrial revolution produced the affluence of some Countries. This all revolves around the common belief that it was the development of Middle Class values which spurred the advance of affluence. I do not grant allegiance to this typical doctrine. Long Work hours started Centuries before the first signs of a Middle Class, basically occasioned by a Feminine refusal to endure unnecessary occupancy in crowded Housing except for Meals and Sleeping. The Concept of Village Inns derived from cold and rainy days, coupled with the disposition of Females as already stated.
The Village Inns was the primary instrument of economic advance, as the Concept of Keeping up with the Jones origins in the bragging in these early businesses. Deviant economic practice was derided if proven a failure, imitated if proven a benefit. Those nations later expressing affluence had, in the early years, adopted a pattern of experimentation at the Village level; non-affluent Countries had not adopted the Village Inn model, instead developing Traditional Shunning practices to deviancies from the Village-accepted Norms.
The practice of Education evolved the culpable skill exercised from Those who could Read and Write in Village Inn debate. Here again, successful practice was imitated. The desire to Read and Write became common to the Villages, and functional group Schools began to be organized in the Villages; it being the natural outgrowth of Village Inn debate. Affluent Nations all possessed Public School systems (whether Government-funded or Private) initiated from the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Most non-affluent Countries in the World today still lack a universal Public School system which all Students must attend; the Worst Offenders often demand restriction to religious schools which indoctrinate against the principle of Change. The lack of an educated Peasantry, not development of a Middle Class, remains the real constriction of advancement. lgl